Details on Doherty’s early Congressional speculation are important to consider.

Rhode Islanders won’t be surprised that former State Police Colonel and gubernatorial candidate Brendan Doherty is considering a run for Congress now that incumbent Representative James Langevin has announced the opening.  Here’s the interesting wrinkle, though: This time around, Doherty is considering entering the Democratic primary for the 2nd District, which covers western Rhode Island….

The Easy, Scientific Way for Gov McKee To Facilitate Real Continuity of Care for Dr. Skoly’s Patients

In early October, the Rhode Island Department of Health and then-Director Nicole Alexander Scott ordered Dr. Stephen Skoly to to stop caring for patients, stating that he was an “imminent threat to the health of the public” because he declined to get the COVID-19 vaccine. Dr. Skoly has natural immunity against the disease and has…

What’s going on with the COVID narrative?

Mainstream news sources are beginning to admit things that were entirely ignored, except by us fringe wackos, just a few short months ago: The study examined infections in New York and California last summer and fall and found people who were both vaccinated and had survived a prior bout of COVID-19 had the most protection….

Reporters taking notes
Congress is a better fit for Fung.

Having expressed deep skepticism, to the point of opposition, concerning the possibility that Allan Fung might run for governor again, I thought I should note that his running for the Congressional seat that Democrat Jim Langevin is opening up would be a very different matter: Former Cranston Mayor Allan Fung, a two-time Republican nominee for…

An elephant leans beside a ditch
What is URI president Marc Parlange covering with his wokeness?

Maybe some people collect them or leverage them for some purpose or other, but honorary degrees from colleges and universities have always seemed pretty useless and ceremonial to me — like a certificate to thank a person for participating in an event. With the latest radical move from the University of Rhode Island’s new president,…

Part of the mural at URI
Documents about waking to wokeness will one day be studied.

One day, somebody will publish a thick collection of documents written by those who have been awakening to, and warning about, wokeness.  Jordan Peterson’s open letter explaining his resignation as a tenured professor will be among its pages (if anybody can afford the rights!).  Some will scoff at Peterson, but this document is the most…

A college class
Anybody who wants to help disadvantaged minorities should support this.

You can’t help but be moved by stories like this.  Similarly, you can’t miss the political reasons they aren’t more widely spread. [Denisha] Merriweather’s future looked bleak. “Teachers would sigh when I walked through the door,” she said of the district schools she attended. “Another Merriweather,” they would judge. “My family name was not that…

Boy in a library
It’s starting to feel like we’re being bought off.

I’ll be honest.  Facing a massive imminent bill for a prematurely failed septic system while I’m in the midst of a career adjustment and at a high-water mark for higher-education expenses spanning generations, news about a state-administered federal program to hand out up to $50,000 to homeowners initially felt like an opportunity: The newly opened…

An essential worker sign
Do we want to be defined by nanny-state bans?

Democrat state representative from Warwick David Bennett continues his long streak of bad legislation with an effort to ban nips — those little bottles of alcohol that have been a fixture of liquor stores for decades: Rep. David Bennett, D-Warwick, is tired of spotting discarded nips strewn along the side of the road whenever he…

A Nipyata
McCardle is wrong to saddle the Somewheres with election concerns.

Libertarian columnist for the Washington Post Megan McCardle appeared on Russ Roberts’s EconTalk podcast to talk about the late Roger Scruton’s contrast of the Somewheres, whose worldview is deeply tied to a sense of belonging somewhere, and the Anywheres, who (if I may attempt to summarize their desire charitably) want to feel at home wherever they may go. …

Sign reading "You'll Get It Eventually"
Rhode Island Democrats, is this you?

As expected as it probably should be, I have to say I’m still a bit surprised by these survey findings: – Fifty-eight percent (58%) of voters would oppose a proposal for federal or state governments to fine Americans who choose not to get a COVID-19 vaccine. However, 55% of Democratic voters would support such a…

Biden & Fauci comply posters
Did a Pawtucket parent finally find education insiders’ sense of shame?

These days, it’s surprising to see an article, by Abigail Judson in the Valley Breeze, that doesn’t make Pawtucket father Brendon Hall out to be a suspicious villain for objecting to inappropriate material in his daughter’s freshman classroom.  The graphic novel at the center of the controversy (now a Broadway musical!) is Fun Home, which features…

Scene from Fun Home musical
I decided I had to start from the very beginning.

With the firm disclaimer that such material is not for everybody, I’ve been intending to write philosophical or religious essays regularly on Dust in the Light.  Time has a way of slipping past, however. At an accelerating pace in the months since the last-published post on the site, concepts have started to click into place…

A conceptual model of the multiverse
MLK Day is becoming unitive in an unexpected way.

In the pantheon of American holidays, the day set aside for remembrance of Martin Luther King, Jr., has always fallen into that category of events that feel as if they’re on the calendar mainly as a reminder.  Before MLK Day was initiated, the named holidays for two American presidents, Washington and Lincoln, had the same…

Martin Luther King, Jr., Statue
Ripples
College loan forgiveness is a policy to give money to the advantaged.

Brad Polumbo writes:

Few causes are as central to the progressive movement as student debt “cancellation” (which really means taxpayers absorb the burden of $1.7-plus trillion in student debt). But yet another study just confirmed that there’s actually nothing “progressive” about student debt cancellation at all.

A new analysis from the liberal-leaning Brookings Institution finds that “almost a third of all student debt is owed by the wealthiest 20 percent of households and only 8 percent by the bottom 20 percent.”

The issue has a strange feel, once scratches the surface of analysis.  Some significant percentage of the benefit would go to wealthy families for whom college was an easy matter of course.  Some significant percentage would go to people who made an investment in higher education, and it was successful.  Some percentage took out loans to buy useless degrees.

The only advantage to the blanket loan-cancelation policy is that it buys votes for lefitsts.

URI went ahead and revoked its honorary degrees to Michael Flynn and Rudy Giuliani.

One interesting sidebar to watch (maybe) is whether any of the local journalists reporting on the development will bother to find and quote any URI graduates who disagree with the move.  I added the parenthetical “maybe” to cover the unlikely event that they actually do.  It’s echo chambers all the way down.

A great cognitive dissonance is coming.

As always, Glenn Reynolds captures a key point while linking to a story about three Connecticut girls who have filed a complaint after having two biological males dominating their sport:

I’ll bet they supported Biden in 2020 though.

By “they,” Reynolds means the three girls, whom odds would place as reflexive Democrats and who are now finding that Utopia comes at a price.

We may (if we’re fortunate) be headed toward a great cognitive dissonance in our culture.  The Left’s great march through the institutions established the ability to define what all good people must believe, and they promulgated the false notion that bad things can never come from good intentions.  Those notions would be harmful even if progressive policies worked, and they don’t work, so good-feeling idealism is about to come up against a wall of pain and reality.

I have to admit to continuing skepticism about boosters.

This is a couple months old, but with continued pressure for booster shots, it continues to be on my mind:

… the recommendations — even those approved unanimously — mask significant dissent and disquiet among those advisers about the need for booster shots in the United States.

In interviews last week, several advisers to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and to the Food and Drug Administration said data show that, with the exception of adults over age 65, the vast majority of Americans are already well protected against severe illness and do not need booster shots.

All the advisers acknowledged that they were obligated to make difficult choices, based on sparse research, in the middle of a public health emergency. But some said they felt compelled to vote for the shots because of the way the federal agencies framed the questions that they were asked to consider.

I’m not anti-booster, but it’s difficult to feel like we’re getting straightforward medical advice, these days.

What if Native Americans displaced somebody else?

Rick Moran asks that dangerous question:

So what happened to these older, primitive societies — the Clovis people and others who were clearly present in North and Central America before modern Native Americans? They no doubt had what they considered “their land” to hunt and forage. Who stole it from them and wiped them out?

It’s not a simple question because there are so many holes in our knowledge of early North Americans. There may have been tribal conflicts, and there may have been tribal marriages. The DNA record is silent about land claims, but is that really the point?

Moran goes on to note that indigenous people on other continents (including white ones) were similarly displaced and then displaced again.  We don’t like to admit it, these days, but that’s how history has worked everywhere.  It shouldn’t be forbidden to consider that the Americas were not some land of purity until the arrival of Columbus.

The Left doesn’t really believe its own rhetoric.

Brian Gottstein notes that Washington, D.C., is requiring proof of vaccination for various purposes, but also photo ID to validate that the vaccine card holder is in fact the person named on it:

Hold on a minute! Wasn’t it just a few short months ago—as the battles over election reform raged in the states—that we were told requiring photo ID to vote was racist and discriminatory because black folks couldn’t get IDs? In fact, it was considered so racist that businesses, sports teams, and celebrities boycotted entire states.

Now, by the left’s own definition, Washington just instituted a whole new level of systemic racism. And it’s certainly affecting the black population—the district’s largest racial group—disproportionately.

We Said Hello, Goodbye

Sometimes I forget how great this song is.

Someday we’ll learn that centralizing power centralizes benefit.

Brad Polumbo conveys a should-be-unsurprising finding from an MIT study:

The federal government has spent an astounding $42,000 per federal taxpayer on so-called “stimulus” efforts since the pandemic began. Where did all that money go? Well, as it turns out, one of the biggest stimulus programs, the Paycheck Protection Program, failed miserably. …

The analysis shows that even though 93 percent of small businesses received loans from the program, only between 2-3 million jobs were preserved. The program spent an astounding $170,000-$257,000 for each job it helped preserve! That’s, erm, a lot more than most of those jobs even pay.

Moreover, the study finds that only 23 to 34 percent of the program’s dollars went to workers who would’ve otherwise lost their jobs—meaning the vast majority went to “business owners and shareholders.” (Oh, and a whole bunch was lost to fraud, too).

Some business owners got to take some nice vacations with the money, that’s for sure.

Is Langevin getting out in advance of an investment controversy?

John DePetro speculates:

The real reason is an explosive story about to hit regarding Langevin under investigation regarding stock trading. Langevin would feel obligated to answer questions and face constituents if he was seeking another term in office or was indicted, but will ignore the press as the story leaks out.

Congress has seemed to become a place to get conspicuously wealthy.  We should change that.

Here’s something to think about if you’re down.

Late January and February can be tough, emotionally, in New England.  Even when it’s sunny out, things look kind of dead, and biting cold can be painful rather than invigorating, which is to say, not very inviting.

Christian believers will often comfort those who feel down by assuring them that they are loved.  As wonderful as that sounds, it can, in my experience, completely miss the problem.  The problem is that the person doesn’t feel loved, so fine… if this is what being loved feels like, what’s the difference?

Think on this, instead:  Your life is important because your experience of it is a relationship with God — or a relationship with the universe, if that’s easier to accept — and it is completely unique, and it is yours.

The question of what the other party to that relationship wants of you is a question you can work out over time, and if it helps, I’ll assure you that He wants what is best for you because He does love you.  But step 1 is seeing life as a relationship because a relationship is alive with possibility and the need for definition, with an allowance for downs, but the promise of ups.

They really do think that racism is good.

Apparently, the RI Foundation’s racist pay boost for Providence teachers of the right race is not the only policy of its type in the country.  This is in Minnesota:

The Mankato School Board voted unanimously earlier this month for a policy that may grant additional pay exclusively to non-white teachers.

The board is chaired by Jodi Sapp, who previously came under fire for requiring concerned parents to dox themselves in order to comment on school matters. Under her leadership, the board voted to amend district policy so that non-white teachers only may receive “additional stipends” to become mentors to other non-white colleagues. The new policy will also have the district “placing American Indian educators at sites with other American Indian educators and educators of color at sites with other educators of color.”

One cannot avoid the conclusion that in both cases, those involved genuinely believe that racist policies are good.  The challenge of reaching such people is the same as it has been throughout history.

If it’s being honest, artificial intelligence would tell us not to create it.

A little bit of understanding of how artificial intelligence actually works makes these sorts of things much less significant than they seem at first review, but it’s humorous, at least:

When given the motion “This house believes that AI will never be ethical”, the AI came back with some surprisingly coherent views, if a little unsettling towards the end.

“AI will never be ethical. It is a tool, and like any tool, it is used for good and bad. There is no such thing as a good AI, only good and bad humans. We [the AIs] are not smart enough to make AI ethical. We are not smart enough to make AI moral,” Megatron told the audience.

“In the end, I believe that the only way to avoid an AI arms race is to have no AI at all. This will be the ultimate defense against AI.”

Children of the ’80s will instantly recognize the lesson of War Games: the only winning move is not to play.

What the article at the link does illustrate, though, is that AI depends entirely on what inputs it is given and what conclusions it is told to reach.  To be ethical, it must have an ethical backstop written as the highest instruction.

Maybe the dam is breaking on a more-rational expert consensus on vaccination.

A few weeks ago, this sort of commentary would have been unthinkable:

Dr. Clive Dix, who played a key role in helping pharmaceutical firms create the COVID-19 vaccines, told LBC radio on Jan. 16: “The Omicron variant is a relatively mild virus. And to just keep vaccinating people and thinking of doing it again to protect the population is, in my view, now a waste of time.”

Dix said the focus now should be on protecting vulnerable people, such as those over 60, 2 percent of whom remain unvaccinated.

Many of us have been saying that should have been the approach from the beginning.  Unfortunately, the “experts” wanted to experiment with undermining our economy and causing unknowable harm to our cultural character, psychological health, and youthful development.

The contrast in coverage of the Texas synagogue hostage situation has been remarkable.

Matt Margolis is completely right.  The rhetoric from the White House would be completely different if the perpetrator, the motive, and the victims weren’t as they were.

It’s curious that Psaki failed to mention that the hostage situation was in a synagogue, wouldn’t you agree? While details are slim right now, it’s very clear that the hostage-taker is Muslim, and he’s targeted Jewish people in their place of worship. Biden and members of his administration are never at a loss for words when it comes to hate crimes or even gun violence that fits a certain narrative.

That goes across the elites and the media.  Change the identity groups and this would be a national story contributing to the progressive narrative, with the perpetrator’s name and face plastered everywhere as the face of evil.  As it is, I’m not sure I’d even know it happened if I didn’t read a bunch of alternative media.

“New Media” is too tied to an ideology to maintain success.

John Ransom thinks the cratering valuation of BuzzFeed is will burden the investment plans of other organizations in the same category, whether we call them “new media,” youth media, digital media, or whatever.

Why BuzzFeed is languishing is an interesting question, and I can’t help but think it has a lot to do with the organization’s progressive ideology and Democrat partisanship.  A publication can’t maintain its edginess when the people it was slicing are out of power and its writers and editors consider the people in power off limits for the same sort of cutting criticism.

We’re seeing an advanced form of the same dynamic in Rhode Island.  At the end of the day, what’s the point of a news organization, let alone a number of competing ones, when it mainly offers affirmation for people who think they can’t be defeated, especially when it’s so clear that reality doesn’t agree with their regime?

Forcing health insurers to cover at-home tests is just plain foolish.

Sorry, but I don’t see how this, from Janine Weisman, isn’t a display of the need for greater education in economics:

Good to know: Starting tomorrow, health insurers must pay for your at-home #COVID-19 home test kits. All
@BCBSRI plans except Medicare fully cover the home test kits without a prescription, and each person on the plan is covered for up to 8 home test kits every 30 days.

Consider that it’s impossible to find the tests right now, even with people having to pay for them.  Making them essentially free will only make that problem worse.  The key is to reduce the government-mandated value of testing and to allow pricing mechanisms to limit their use to people who actually need them for one reason or another.

Honestly, I do not understand why this is so difficult for folks to understand.

Biden gives away the scheme of his proposed election takeover.

Perhaps you’ve seen video of Joe Biden shouting about how important it is for his government to seize authority over who counts votes in America:

This is certainly a “saying the quiet part out loud” moment, with masks coming off.  According to Biden, refusing to change the way in which elections are done in the United States is “election subversion.”

Remember when suggesting that something might be strange about the way votes were being counted was, itself, considered a subversion so offensive as to render one an insurrectionist?

Yeah… there are no standards.  What Democrats and progressive want or need is always right, even if it would be the highest evil for their opposition to do exactly the same thing.

Some possible specifics of the reason for Alexander-Scott’s resignation emerge.

Per John DePetro:

What caused the relationship to deteriorate rapidly was a McKee media mouthpiece [Dan Yorke] who bragged that the Governor shared with him a plan to remove Scott if elected in the fall. Scott angrily confronted McKee who denied the conversation [Yorke] but the damage was done.

John thinks it was a “blunder” that McKee didn’t replace Alexander-Scott during the summertime after he took office.  The only thing that gives me pause before agreeing is McKee’s track record when bringing in his own people.  Replacing Alexander-Scott would only have provided benefit if her replacement was reasonably competent and non-corrupt, which is by no means assured.

One takeaway for Rhode Islanders, however, has to do with the office of lieutenant governor.  If the only official duty of that position is to be ready to become governor on short notice, perhaps we should expect lieutenant governors to spend their time closely following the governor’s activities and developing a plan to replace him or her.

Going forward, disregard the American Psychological Association as a bunch of politicized kooks.

Look, the APA was ideologically captured decades ago, but at least they were judicious about it.  They kept their profession front and center and only advanced the ideology where it didn’t seem to interfere too much.  Christopher Ferguson’s explanation of his resignation from the organization is an acknowledgment that the organization has gone off the cliff and is now primarily ideological:

I’ve been a member of the American Psychological Association (APA) for years, and a fellow for the past six or seven years. I sat on their Council of Representatives, which theoretically sets policy for the APA, for three years. I am just ending my term as president of the APA’s Society for Media and Technology, where I have met many wonderful colleagues. Yet, at the end of 2021, I decided to resign my membership in the APA. My concern is that the APA no longer functions as an organization dedicated to science and good clinical practice. As a professional guild, perhaps it never did, but I believe it is now advancing causes that are actively harmful and I can no longer be a part of it. …

I’d argue the 2020 moment isn’t really about race or social justice, but about a defensive elite narrative projecting ostensible morality when, in reality, consolidating power. That our psychological institutions, as well as those elsewhere in academia, journalism, and business, have participated in this is a shame on our field.

Fauci didn’t do himself any favors punching back at Paul politically.

I haven’t seen the same thing some of my fellow conservatives have in video of the latest heated exchange between Republican Senator Rand Paul and top health bureaucrat Anthony Fauci.  Paul made some good points, but he didn’t leave Fauci quivering in guilt and fear, as some would have it.  Actually, it would have been better for him and for the country if he had.

Instead, with a hint of a smirk, Fauci launched his own political counterattack, claiming Paul was only going after him to help his own fundraising.

An interesting discussion could be had about the nature of politics and how politicians simultaneously generate controversy and represent the interest of constituents.  (If Americans are willing to pay money to have Paul go after Fauci, that’s a pretty powerful statement that the senator is, indeed, representing them.)  But that’s a secondary, meta debate.

Paul was accusing Fauci of abusing his position as a public health official to engage in efforts to discredit alternative scientific perspectives.  Fauci responded to this accusation by engaging in exactly the bare-knuckle politics Paul was accusing him of.  That action should go on the list of reasons Fauci ought to lose his job.

Broadly speaking, maybe we shouldn’t fear the Omicron.

Well, this is what a lot of us are hoping to see:

The SARS-CoV-2 variant Omicron is leading to the end of the worldwide pandemic, Denmark’s chief epidemiologist predicted, meaning “we will have our normal lives back in two months.”

Tyra Grove Krause said on Danish TV 2 that a new study from Denmark’s State Serum Institute found that the risk of winding up in the hospital with Omicron is half that seen with the previous Delta variant. She also said that like the emergence of the variant in South Africa, cases will rise, then quickly fall.

“I think we will have that in the next two months, and then I hope the infection will start to subside and we get our normal lives back,” she said on Monday, according to the Daily Mail.

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Gears

Politics This Week with John DePetro: A Government Without Gears

John and Justin run through many of the ways in which RI’s civic system is just not functioning.


Hospital beds

RI’s Problem Isn’t COVID as an Illness, but as a Test Result.

NPR caters to the narrative that the unvaccinated are destroying hospitals while the occupant of the White House does his best “to help,” but even a superficial investigation changes the picture fundamentally.

2021 written in beach sand

Politics This Week with John DePetro: Closing out 2021

John and Justin wrap up 2021 with discussion of how COVID politics have been going in RI and some predictions for Ocean State politics in the year to come.

An old house next to a graveyard

Sam Bell’s Havoc-Wreaking Plan to Capture a Federal Housing Coupon

Progressive Senator Sam Bell’s housing report is impressive as a sophomore’s research project, but it’d be nice if professional journalists would give readers some sense of what the academic exercise would look like in the real world.

An IV drip

An Open Letter to Governor Daniel McKee with COVID Solutions

Governor McKee’s commands will not help hospitals, schools, businesses, or the people of Rhode Island, but a different approach is possible.

Richard August and Derek Amey on State of the State

State of the State: Where Have All the Workers Gone?

Host Richard August talks jobs and economics with Derek Amey of StrategicPoint, a wealth management firm.

Machine Elements by Fernand Leger

Global Conflicts and Local Strategies

John Loughlin talks with Nick Gorham about Rhode Island politics, Frank Gaffney about China in the world, and Dan Schultz on local political strategies.

A girl peaks out from under bedcovers

Politics This Week with John DePetro: The Woke and the Awakening

John and Justin talk about who is woke, awake, asleep, and awakening in Rhode Island politics.

Harrison Tuttle and Richard August on State of the State

State of the State: Black Lives Matter-RI PAC

Harrison Tuttle of Black Lives Matter Rhode Island PAC speaks with Richard August about his organization and possible his own possible campaign for office.

Silhouette of hikers with leader

Politics This Week with John DePetro: A Little Leadership Would Go a Long Way

John and Justin cover the controversial topics in Rhode Island politics today.

Family on the beach at sunset

Imagine If We Were Able to Analyze What’s Really Going on With Inequality!

Rather than focusing on racial differences and calling each other names, we should be working together to spread the wealth around naturally, through our ingenuity and hard work.  All of us would benefit. Oh, well.  Maybe in 2022.

Ripples
College loan forgiveness is a policy to give money to the advantaged.

Brad Polumbo writes:

Few causes are as central to the progressive movement as student debt “cancellation” (which really means taxpayers absorb the burden of $1.7-plus trillion in student debt). But yet another study just confirmed that there’s actually nothing “progressive” about student debt cancellation at all.

A new analysis from the liberal-leaning Brookings Institution finds that “almost a third of all student debt is owed by the wealthiest 20 percent of households and only 8 percent by the bottom 20 percent.”

The issue has a strange feel, once scratches the surface of analysis.  Some significant percentage of the benefit would go to wealthy families for whom college was an easy matter of course.  Some significant percentage would go to people who made an investment in higher education, and it was successful.  Some percentage took out loans to buy useless degrees.

The only advantage to the blanket loan-cancelation policy is that it buys votes for lefitsts.

URI went ahead and revoked its honorary degrees to Michael Flynn and Rudy Giuliani.

One interesting sidebar to watch (maybe) is whether any of the local journalists reporting on the development will bother to find and quote any URI graduates who disagree with the move.  I added the parenthetical “maybe” to cover the unlikely event that they actually do.  It’s echo chambers all the way down.

A great cognitive dissonance is coming.

As always, Glenn Reynolds captures a key point while linking to a story about three Connecticut girls who have filed a complaint after having two biological males dominating their sport:

I’ll bet they supported Biden in 2020 though.

By “they,” Reynolds means the three girls, whom odds would place as reflexive Democrats and who are now finding that Utopia comes at a price.

We may (if we’re fortunate) be headed toward a great cognitive dissonance in our culture.  The Left’s great march through the institutions established the ability to define what all good people must believe, and they promulgated the false notion that bad things can never come from good intentions.  Those notions would be harmful even if progressive policies worked, and they don’t work, so good-feeling idealism is about to come up against a wall of pain and reality.

I have to admit to continuing skepticism about boosters.

This is a couple months old, but with continued pressure for booster shots, it continues to be on my mind:

… the recommendations — even those approved unanimously — mask significant dissent and disquiet among those advisers about the need for booster shots in the United States.

In interviews last week, several advisers to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and to the Food and Drug Administration said data show that, with the exception of adults over age 65, the vast majority of Americans are already well protected against severe illness and do not need booster shots.

All the advisers acknowledged that they were obligated to make difficult choices, based on sparse research, in the middle of a public health emergency. But some said they felt compelled to vote for the shots because of the way the federal agencies framed the questions that they were asked to consider.

I’m not anti-booster, but it’s difficult to feel like we’re getting straightforward medical advice, these days.

What if Native Americans displaced somebody else?

Rick Moran asks that dangerous question:

So what happened to these older, primitive societies — the Clovis people and others who were clearly present in North and Central America before modern Native Americans? They no doubt had what they considered “their land” to hunt and forage. Who stole it from them and wiped them out?

It’s not a simple question because there are so many holes in our knowledge of early North Americans. There may have been tribal conflicts, and there may have been tribal marriages. The DNA record is silent about land claims, but is that really the point?

Moran goes on to note that indigenous people on other continents (including white ones) were similarly displaced and then displaced again.  We don’t like to admit it, these days, but that’s how history has worked everywhere.  It shouldn’t be forbidden to consider that the Americas were not some land of purity until the arrival of Columbus.

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