Increased productivity is a communal good.

Somehow, despite ample reason for civic disappointment, I find I’m becoming less cynical as I get older, not more.  Even now, when I come across reasoning like that expressed by young progressive Democrat Representative David Morales, I can’t help but feel hope that we can salvage reason from the flames of ideology: Here’s the reality:…

Artwork of a worker transforming into a boss
Days of Reckoning for the Salt of RI’s Earth

The point can’t be stressed enough that Rhode Islanders should understand the Washington Bridge debacle as a representative lesson on our state government.  For that reason, not the least, Mark Patinkin’s conversations with local affected business owners is an article to print and review periodically in the future.  Restauranteurs and venue owners bought and built…

A prison warden hides his keys behind his back during a fire
The Maher life can’t be representative of human needs.

Arguably, Eric Abbenante— overstates the degree of “debate” in this clip featuring Dr. Phil and Bill Maher, but the difference in point of view he highlights is the crucial one.  Here’s Abbenante: Bill Maher and Dr Phil debate the importance of family and religion: “You think family and faith are a big fix to the…

A yacht sails toward an almost entirely submerged city.
Freeing teachers means freeing them from an inapt industrial employment model.

Brandon Busteed’s argument in Forbes well taken: U.S. teachers are dead last among all occupational groups and professions in feeling their opinions count at work, that their supervisor creates an open and trusting environment and that they are treated with respect each day. Teachers are also the highest of all professions in experiencing burn-out and…

A teacher at the blackboard in a cage
Student loans are another crisis for the benefit of government.

Whatever one’s political leanings, the incentives of government must be understood as simply reality.  Government agencies don’t have to create a product or service that people will voluntarily purchase.  Rather, they must find activities for which they can justify forcing people who are not the direct beneficiaries to pay.  This model is justified, in some…

A farmer in a suit admires his corn with graduation caps
The details are the important part in the “housing crisis.”

By its nature, advocacy journalism glosses over the details that many would consider crucial.  Headlines from a pair of such articles by Katie Mulvaney in the Providence Journal illustrate the point: Six months pregnant with nowhere to go – an unhoused woman’s plight on RI’s streets After months of sleeping on the street, pregnant woman finally…

A homeless mother pushes a baby carriage in Providence, RI
Journalists should be conspicuously fair, even with groups nobody likes.

In the last couple decades, Americans (at least those who occupy seats in academia and mainstream media) appear to have lost their ability to distinguish between upholding a principle and supporting any given people who might benefit from that principle from time to time.  Nobody likes to defend groups that are broadly deplored, like Nazis…

Street artist draws passing white people as MAGA
What is it about social media lately? (A hope for controlling the crisis.)

Almost in passing during a recent podcast featuring Greg McKeown, Tim Ferriss stepped into an idea I’ve been contemplating lately: [A]s my job, I interview some of the top performers in the world, hundreds of them, and the change that I have seen for those people in that subset who are already, I think most…

People stare at their cell phones while disasters happen around them
We react to increases in housing prices in exactly the wrong way.

Lance Lambert, who appears to be a reporter on the housing beat, shared a table of increases in housing prices in the 50 largest metro areas.  As the following snip from the table shows, Providence experienced the third-largest increase over the past year: Various contextual points are important to remember.  Metros can vary in size,…

Suburban house with a slot machine on the side
We’re crossing the line from inadequate education to malevolent indoctrination.

For those willing to step outside the boundaries of “just the way we do things,” the justification for mandatory schooling backstopped by taxpayer-funded government schools is an interesting question.  I’d pick up the rope and pull for the “yes, justified” side.  A country founded on freedom and individual achievement and held together by abstract agreement…

A teacher Xes out George Washington on the blackboard
Even By Her Own Metric, Rhode Island’s Education Commissioner Has to Step Down

The Rhode Island Center for Freedom and Prosperity has called for the removal of Rhode Island Education Commissioner Angelica Infante-Green. They make their case here. I echo their call. During her tenure, Education Commissioner Angelica Infante-Green has failed to implement successful education reforms. She has instead prioritized questionable, experimental, non-education initiatives in Rhode Island’s K-12…

Elaborate government investment fraud creates incentive for election fraud.

The latest shiny news object in Rhode Island media is the revelation that the Tidewater soccer stadium will cost Rhode Island taxpayers $132 million in order to finance $27 million of the construction costs, or $4.4 million per year for 30 years.  Grumbling is being heard from people with familiar names — “obviously these are…

A man in a suit holds a soccer ball decorated with dollar signs
People who want to think for themselves are not the target of national Democrats’ talking points.

Among my frustrations with social media in recent years has been the way my streams become filled with content in which I have minimal interest — like Democrat propaganda — because people share it in disbelief.  The frustration is primarily with the realization that people apparently believe in completely incompatible realities, which is what motivates…

Men discuss box of garbage in a dark shop
In Rhode Island, government is a natural disaster.

Yes, yes, words get thrown around in state-level politics, but there’s an important lesson in East Providence City Council President Bob Rodericks’s letter asking Rhode Island Governor Dan McKee to declare a state of emergency over the closure of the Washington Bridge between East Providence and Providence: … East Providence is impacted more than any…

A road inspector sleeps on his car
Nicole Solas (incidentally) nominates a candidate for most-evil organization in Rhode Island.

Keep in mind that Thundermist Health Center is interwoven with Rhode Island’s political elite and is working within our school districts:

Nicoletta0602: Thundermist Health Center, a RI health clinic transing kids, uses a make-believe "genderland map" of "manlandia" & "lady land" to train dr.'s, schools, & social workers.

"girly grasslands" "boy bay" "dandy land" "puerile peninsula" 👀🚩

These are not serious medical providers.

The “health center” is encouraging mental illness, not helping people with it.

Remember those basic rights we once took for granted.

Roger Kimball has in mind, here, the attacks on Donald Trump:

RogerKimball: There is a reason that Article 1 of the Constitution prohibits Bills of Attainder and ex post facto laws. There is also a reason that the 8th Amendment prohibits "excessive fines."

The disappointing thing is how many Americans just don’t care, because the Democrats have whipped them into a frenzy of hatred.  We are fortunate, indeed, to have basic rights protected in our fundamental laws, but no piece of paper can withstand the desire of a mob when it takes power.  If too many people allow their principles to be corrupted, and if too few speak to uphold those principles that once were shared, the mob will have its way.

A good example of journalism.

Yes, we’ve reached the point that the place to get real, non-partisan journalism is on a social media platform from such people as “Mel,” whose X address is Villgecrazylady.  For example:

Villgecrazylady: Prior to finding fame in the J6 fallout, the most remarkable thing about Mr. Kinzinger was just how unremarkable his congressional career had been.

The thread that follows explains how former Congressman Adam Kinzinger — a darling of the J6-investigation crowd — turned campaign donations into usable funds.  Another good example is this pinned post from September 3, which observes the amazing and sudden shift of national politicians to micro-donations.  There sure is a lot of smoke around this area; why aren’t mainstream journalists digging into it?

(Meanwhile, by the way, if you’re a Rhode Islander who wants to have some small effect on the well-being of your town or school district, you better find time to keep your miniscule campaign finances in order!)

How much space is there between the RI Foundation and the Democrat Party?

I’m still puzzled by the presence of the leader of the Rhode Island Foundation in this image:

Politicians and David Cicilline break ground at a construction project

Is the foundation involved with this project, was this just a bunch of buddies hanging out for a photo op, or is there really no space at all between state government, federal government, and the non-profit sector — all united under the Party?

Don’t let mockery distract from the most important revelation in Sen. Kennedy’s questioning.

To be honest, I feel for Gus Schumacher, the young man whom many conservatives mocked when he was the target of pointed questioning from Republican Senator John Kennedy:

SenJohnKennedy: Democrats want to spend $50 TRILLION to become carbon neutral & held a hearing to tell us why.

Dem witness: Carbon dioxide is "a huge part of our atmosphere."

Me: "It’s actually a very small part of our atmosphere." (0.035%)

Dem witness: "Well, okay. But, yeah. I don’t know."

Yes, it’s telling that an ostensible witness for greater government control as a response to “climate change” knows very little about the science, but we’ve raised several generations believing a progressive fallacy.  Our focus should be there, not the least because it has such opportunity for revelations on their part.

An underlying conceit of progressivism is that what needs to be done is obvious.  Schumacher may, indeed, be an expert on that which he’s observed as an Olympic cross-country skier, but he should have some humility when advocating for a particular interpretation of the causes and, especially, humanity’s appropriate response.

The urge to “just do something” is deadly dangerous, and I’m not sure mockery is going to change the hearts of those who’ve been indoctrinated to cultivate it as a first response.

Ken Block is telling Democrats the story they want to hear.

I don’t doubt Ken is being honest about his findings, or lack thereof, from his voter fraud review in 2020, but from the very first, I’ve though he’s was overstating his scope and the extent to which his investigation was conclusive.  Very plainly put, “I did not find evidence” is not the same as “there is no evidence to be found.”

Mark Davis, who also investigated the election, takes Block to task on exactly these grounds in an important article on The Federalist which honest journalists would ask Block about in every interview.  Unfortunately, we’re a long way from a civic society in which such things could be expected.

One suspects that if Block’s book told an opposing story — if it were Proven, rather than Disproven — its national promotion would have been much less enthusiastic.  Odds are good the local media in Rhode Island would have ignored it entirely.

That’s the civil society in which we live.  The guardians of the public square aren’t interested in robust, reasonable debate.  It’s vulgar political warfare to them.  And it’s disappointing to see a good-government advocate cash in on our devolution.  Davis ends by suggesting Block won’t likely be hired to do such work again, given how publicly he’s betrayed the trust of his highest-profile client.  Local reformers in RI should take note, too.

Strange how nobody seems to care about the FAFSA debacle.

Joe Biden abusing the authority of his office to buy votes by transferring student loan debt to other Americans is back in the news, and it reminds me that I haven’t seen any mainstream coverage of a disaster facing just about every college-bound family in the United States this year:

If, like me, you have a college-bound high-school senior in your family, you’ve likely been on the receiving end of yet another colossal screw-up by our federal government: the overhaul of the Free Application for Federal Student Aid, commonly known as the FAFSA. Every year, students (or more commonly their parents) need to fill out the FAFSA with information about their income, assets, and expenses in order to qualify for federal student aid. Many colleges require the FAFSA before awarding other forms of need-based aid, and some require it to be filed even by people without need before they can qualify for scholarship aid. There’s a more detailed and onerous form, the CSS, operated by the College Board and required by some schools. Filling these out is like doing your taxes, only more so. Typically, the forms are available in October, and schools may set filing deadlines in the fall so that they can deliver financial-aid awards at or near the time they send out acceptances.

Not this year. The FAFSA wasn’t even fully available until January 8, after the Department of Education briefly flicked on the lights on the form on December 30 just so it could claim that it launched in 2023.

This is not just conservative media hype.  My family is grappling with this at the moment, and yet the regime media seems not to care.  The media’s inability to hold Democrats accountable is one of the strongest argument for voting for the other party, even though Republicans aren’t as apt to give you cash for your vote.

Rhode Islanders don’t want the public transportation statists want them to want.

For an academic project not long ago I reviewed data on RIPTA bus routes, including surveys of riders of every line in the system, so the unstated assumption of Antonia Noori Farzan’s recent Providence Journal article on the subject jumped out at me.  The headline is, “What’s it like to rely on RIPTA to get around the state? We tried it for a week.”  And the not-quite-articulated assumption is that traveling around using public transit should be attractive even when compared with the ease of cars in a suburban area.

There simply is not the demand to maintain a system that can get any given person to any given location in the state painlessly.  The area didn’t develop for that, and the people don’t really want it.

Frankly, I doubt progressives even want to provide it for them.  It would take larger buses that require fewer drivers in urban areas and smaller buses (or vans) with more amenities for suburban commuters and others, perhaps with less-expensive labor.  Journalists would start writing articles about the contrast in comfort level between the two, while at the same time expressing outrage that urbanites have to pay so much to travel to the suburbs.

Cars are efficient modes of travel, and they are symbols of freedom.  Government should focus on improving our infrastructure and reversing the regulations designed to make them too expensive for working class Rhode Islanders.

Government economic statistics are starting to feel like the work of zombies.

Some months, it surprises me to find economists still putting out regular analyses of government employment statistics.  Perhaps I’m too jaded, but I’ve completely lost confidence in the data.

I used to have my monthly jobs review posts for both the Ocean State Current and the RI Center for Freedom & Prosperity, but during the two years of overlap between the Obama administration in Washington and the Raimondo administration in Rhode Island, the numbers became difficult to take.  The huge revisions to the data began to seem conspicuously to help Democrats, which Raimondo amplified by using her many PR people to spin, typically by digging out any narrow cut of the data that would look positive.

At this point, our economy has become so distorted, I’m not sure the government statistics would be accurately describing the job market even if they were objectively collected and presented.

If I’m remembering the plot correctly, the 2005 movie, Land of the Dead, imagined a world in which living humans had taken refuge in cities while zombies wandered the suburbs.  One character observes that the zombies seemed to have become more cognizant, with some of them going about the trappings of their previous lives, like pretending to work a gas station.

That’s how analysis of economic data feels to me now.

Opposition to school choice is meant to control teachers, too.

Here’s a good addendum to my post, yesterday, about progressives’ response to discipline policies in charter schools:

LoriGorm: Exactly! The charter schools siphon teachers away. They are often are prevented from contributing to the state's pension system (increasing the underfunding). Instead, those charter school teachers are offered a 401K plan.

Those who oppose school choice are also limiting the options for teachers.  They’re only about control.  They want to make sure teachers can’t get out of the pension system, and they want to make sure children can’t get out of the schools.  They care less about making it work for everybody than about controlling it, and the worse their management of what they control, the more they have to increase control.

Such a system structurally cannot correct itself, which is why we are where we are in so many areas of society.

Why do progressives want people to lack self control?

These sentiments from two prominent Rhode Island progressives are worth noting:

EnriqueForRI: We cannot allow for a complete charter school take over of Providence schools or else we’ll be seeing these harmful practices placed on our students.

“Harmful practices.”  “Punish children.”  They’re talking about demerits for things like being late or unprepared for class.

Notice that they don’t care whether these policies could help some children.  Either in their arrogance they think they know better or in their malice they want to cultivate a generation that has no self-control.  A healthy society would keep people like Sanchez and Bell as far as possible from the ability to set policies related to children.

One reason to fear government control of healthcare is the reluctance to reevaluate.

Rich Weinstein’s quip, here, exposes a deadly serious problem with the progressive style of governance:

phillyrich1: It’s working!  The ACA is working!!  And better than expected.

Rhode Island jumped into ObamaCare with both feet, and not only are our hospitals struggling, but people are having a terrible time finding primary care doctors.  Maybe those two things are cause-and-effect, maybe they’re loosely related, or maybe there’s no connection at all, but contrast the absolute surety that ObamaCare would fix all problems with the complete disinterest in exploring new problems that have arisen since it was passed.

If government control were to be effective, it would have to be characterized by continual measurement and reassessment, but the incentives are exactly the opposite.  We don’t get the power of government bent toward cool, clinical evaluation.  We get that power intent on avoiding questions and passing blame to others.

Notice that McKee’s snafu attempt to meet with businesses in East Providence failed because he didn’t want to cross the bridge.

This incident, highlighted by John DePetro, is a few weeks old, at this point, but it’s worth noting nonetheless.  Democrat Governor Dan McKee and Democrat East Providence Mayor Bob DaSilva were supposed to meet with businesses affected by the Washington Bridge closure.  DaSilva has been adamant that people should not avoid his city out of fear of traffic.  Yet, a last-minute rescheduling away from East Providence to Providence wasn’t well communicated, and many people missed the event.

That is, McKee seems not to have wanted to cross the bridge.  It’d be funny if it weren’t so sad.

Every datapoint has become a political Rorschach test.

I agree with Mickey Kaus, here:

kausmickey: This chart makes Trump look pretty good, no?--US out of woods by the time Biden takes office ...

Under President Trump, our dip was shallower than the comparison countries in the chart, and the economy was roaring back by the time Biden took office. If anything’s notable, it’s how hard Biden put the brakes on within months of being in office, with continued slowing in improvement thereafter.  I’d even argue the effect was so profound that it continues to harm the other countries.

Maybe mental illness isn’t the cause of progressivism.

This is an interesting bit of data, and Frank Fleming’s response is humorous, but a question of causation and another bit of information are relevant:

IMAO_: Don't you feel terrible that we've been spending our time making fun of liberals online when we should have been locking them up in asylums for treatment? The answer to the political divide is compassion.

The bit of information that’s missing is the percentage of each group who’s asked a healthcare provider to diagnose a mental health condition. No doubt, psychologists and psychiatrists could find something wrong with many a conservative and many a man.

The question of causation is more political.  Progressivism is the ideology for mental illness.  They reinforce each other, and the presence of the latter makes a person vulnerable to manipulation by the proponents of the former.

No, RIPEC, funding isn’t the problem in RI infrastructure.

It’s hard to believe this is the conclusion of the CEO of the “business-backed” Rhode Island Public Expenditure Council (RIPEC):

The state should consider alternatives pursued by other states like road usage charges, electric vehicle charging fees, increased registration fees for hybrid/electric vehicles, or tolls (especially if the state is unsuccessful in its appeal of the ruling in the truck toll court case).

Mo’ money, mo’ money.

Rhode Island does not have a funding problem.  It has a management and priority problem.  Adding to the cost of living and funneling more millions through our corrupt government will not solve the problem.

It’d be interesting for somebody to do a study of the percentage of new money that actually goes toward increased time-on-task for infrastructure in the Ocean State, versus new hiring, increased pay, and graft.  Unfortunately, RIPEC does not appear likely to be that somebody, despite being one of the vanishingly few groups with some resources and mission to do such things.

What corruption might we find if we looked?

These stories come much too quickly to keep up, digest, and consider, but Mel’s review of Letitia James’s campaign finance reports a few weeks ago is worth a look:

Mel: When I got asked to look into Letitia James’ financials last week, I really wasn’t expecting to find much.

What might we find in RI, if we looked?

Be great if we talked more about young’ns voting.

Letting 17-year-olds vote in primaries if they’ll be eligible to vote in the associated general elections is certainly reasonable, but that doesn’t mean we shouldn’t note a pair of conspicuous questions along the way.

Firstly, why do Democrats seem always to want to expand voting toward the most manipulable constituencies?

Secondly (and perhaps relatedly), why do our beliefs about maturity seem to be moving in contrary directions?  Young adults can remain on their parents’ health insurance through the better part of their 20s, and they now typically stay in school nearly as late, where it’s apparently unfair to hold them accountable for the debt they incur.  We expect them to take less and less responsibility later and later in life.  Yet, the push is on to let them decide they want to mutilate their bodies to “become” the opposite sex at early ages and to let them vote on politicians who affect us all.

It’s almost like the intention is to keep them from growing up, confuse them, and then urge them to give government more power over our lives.

Sometimes it’s the minor legislation (like weekly pay mandates) that is the most telling.

This legislation is hardly the most-pressing matter facing Rhode Island at the moment:

Sen. Frank A. Ciccone III and Rep. Enrique George Sanchez are sponsoring legislation to require most businesses in Rhode Island to pay their employees weekly.

Has either of these legislators ever had to make payroll for a business?  One suspects they simply don’t understand the challenges of operating a business, so this seems like a no-brain crumb they can throw to the constituents to claim to be helping them.

They would exempt small government offices and nonprofits, which shows they have some dim understanding that the legislation could be harmful, but that’s just a special-interest nod.  You otherwise have to conclude that they consider themselves competent to micromanage the entire Ocean State economy and don’t really care what the effects might be.

Vitalogy is a reminder of our need for adventure (at least for me).

Yesterday, I listened to Pearl Jam’s Vitalogy album all the way though for maybe the first time because it’s the 574th best-selling album, and I’m tracing that list from the top. The band’s prior recording, Vs., had been such a disappointment that I didn’t bother with its follow-up.

Vs. came out while I was a freshman at Carnegie Mellon University, so buying it took some doing. I had to decide if the cost was worth the tradeoff on my slim budget, find a music store in an unfamiliar city without the Internet, figure out the bus schedule, and ride back-and-forth across town, observing people along the way.

It feels like we’ve lost something by making everything so easy.  Tom Petty once complained that CDs and tapes took something out of the musical experience.  Vinyl records came in this large, beautiful envelope, like a poster packaged with the music.  CDs and tapes would fit in your pocket.

At least you still had to go to the store and find them.  There was an adventure to it, and if you didn’t know what, exactly, you wanted, you had to make an actual decision, because you could only buy so many.  And sometimes the experience was all you had, because the album proved a disappointment, like Vs.

Of course, I never could have listened to all the best-selling albums back then.  Even knowing what they were would have taken extensive research, and listening to them all would have been a heroic quest.

As in so many areas, what we need is a way to revive the sense of adventure, tangible experience, and risk without imposing a phony scarcity.

Plotting degree prices versus earnings 10-years later yields unexpected results in Rhode Island.

This is certainly not where I’d have placed the dots if somebody asked me to guess:

Costa24601: Which colleges in Rhode Island are worth it, financially?

Four-year colleges, net price for a family earning >$110k

That Rhode Island College is the least expensive, and doesn’t seem to produce a great effect isn’t a surprise.  Johnson & Whales, however, is surprising, and New England Institute of Technology is even more so, both in how expensive it is and in the fact that it doesn’t produce even an average income in Rhode Island.  I’d have thought skilled trades would achieve that threshold.

The Independent Man drives away from the State House

Politics This Week: Arrested Hope

John DePetro and Justin Katz review some of the distractions and calamities in Rhode Island government.

Leader of an angry mob accuses his reflection.

Reflecting on Rhode Island’s Robbers

Representative Michael Chippendale directs Rhode Islanders’ attention to the party responsible for the Ocean State’s condition.

A healthcare panel gives thumbs down.

Politics This Week: Under Their Thumb

John DePetro and Justin Katz warn of growing government control and corruption.

A killer clown's shadow falls on Main Street

Politics This Week: When the Clowns Control

John DePetro and Justin Katz review the latest way government officials and journalists put our state on the wrong track.

Fictional movie poster for Day of Reckoning

Politics This Week: Day of Reckoning!

John DePetro and Justin Katz explore who can expect days of reckoning in Rhode Island.

Leader of an angry mob accuses his reflection.

Reflecting on Rhode Island’s Robbers

Representative Michael Chippendale directs Rhode Islanders’ attention to the party responsible for the Ocean State’s condition.

A healthcare panel gives thumbs down.

Politics This Week: Under Their Thumb

John DePetro and Justin Katz warn of growing government control and corruption.

A killer clown's shadow falls on Main Street

Politics This Week: When the Clowns Control

John DePetro and Justin Katz review the latest way government officials and journalists put our state on the wrong track.

Fictional movie poster for Day of Reckoning

Politics This Week: Day of Reckoning!

John DePetro and Justin Katz explore who can expect days of reckoning in Rhode Island.

A giant mime shushes an empty legislative chamber

Politics This Week: RI’s Code of Silence

John DePetro and Justin Katz explore various subjects about which journalists aren’t free to be clear.

Ticket booth outside a circus sideshow tent

Politics This Week: State of Distraction

John DePetro and Justin Katz discuss the ways in which Rhode Island’s political elites distract and mislead the public.

How can a free country force doctors to perform procedures they find morally wrong?

Matt Hadro reports for the Catholic News Agency:

The Catholic Medical Association has joined a lawsuit against a Biden administration rule that it says tramples the conscience rights of doctors opposed to gender-transitioning procedures.

In May, the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) issued a notice effectively reinstating the “transgender mandate,” requiring doctors to perform gender-transitioning procedures upon the referral of a mental health professional. The requirement does not include exemptions for doctors opposed to the procedures for medical or conscience reasons.

In fairness, it isn’t difficult to make a devastating ad about the still-new Biden administration.

There needs to be a movie about the “Pineapple Express”

No, not a sequel, but a movie about the inspiring story coming out of Afghanistan about “an all-volunteer group of American veterans of the Afghan war launched a final daring mission on Wednesday night dubbed the “Pineapple Express” to shepherd hundreds of at-risk Afghan elite forces and their families to safety…”  Hollywood used to be able to turn inspired-by-real-life-events into a movie quickly (Casablanca was written & in theaters in less than a year), so it won’t come any time soon. But it is a reminder that not all Americans have given up on their allies and friends. They are true heroes.

We need this America back in charge sooner than later.

Do cash-based businesses evade taxes?

Most likely, and good for them.  Naturally, RI’s revenue analysis chief, Paul Dion, objects:

Paul Dion tweets re: cash-based business

Confiscatory taxation on productivity will have that effect.  During the government-enforced economic shutdown, we’ve seen how politicians and bureaucrats prefer to operate:  Rather than allow people to figure things out, they’d rather collect taxes and decide how and to whom to distribute relief.  Who serves whom has been reversed.